Copyright vs Community:
Il copyright è stato sviluppato nell'era della macchina da stampa, ed è stato progettato per adattarsi al sistema di copiatura centralizzata imposta dalla macchina da stampa. Ma il sistema del copyright non si adatta bene con le reti di computer, e solo punizioni draconiane possono farlo rispettare.
Le corporazioni globali che traggono profitto dal copyright stanno facendo pressione per punizioni draconiane, e per aumentare i propri poteri di copyright, così come sopprimere l'accesso pubblico alla tecnologia. Ma se speriamo seriamente di servire l'unico scopo legittimo del copyright - promuovere il progresso, a beneficio del pubblico - allora dobbiamo fare cambiamenti nella direzione opposta.
Copyright vs Community:
Copyright developed in the age of the printing press, and was designedto fit with the system of centralized copying imposed by the printingpress. But the copyright system does not fit well with computernetworks, and only draconian punishments can enforce it.
The global corporations that profit from copyright are lobbyingfor draconian punishments, and to increase their copyright powers,while suppressing public access to technology. But if weseriously hope to serve the only legitimate purpose ofcopyright-to promote progress, for the benefit of thepublic-then we must make changes in the other direction.
Richard Matthew Stallman is a software developer and software freedom activist. Born in 1953, he attended Harvard starting in 1970 and graduated in 1974 with a Bachelor of Arts in physics. From September 1974 to June 1975 he was a graduate student in physics at MIT.
He worked at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT from 1971 to 1984, learning operating system development by doing it, except for the year he was a graduate student. He wrote the first extensible Emacs text editor there in 1976, and developed the AI technique of dependency-directed backtracking, also known as truth maintenance.
In 1983 Stallman announced the project to develop the GNU operating system, a Unix-like operating system meant to be entirely free software, and has been the project's leader ever since. With that announcement he also launched the Free Software Movement.
Stallman began working on this project on January 5, 1984, resigning from MIT employment in order to do so. In October 1985 he started the Free Software Foundation, of which he is president as a full-time volunteer.
The GNU/Linux system, which is a variant of GNU that also uses the kernel Linux developed by Linus Torvalds, are used in tens or hundreds of millions of computers, and are now preinstalled in computers available in retail stores. However, the distributors of these systems often disregard the ideas of freedom which make free software important, and even include nonfree software in those systems.
That is why, since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time in political advocacy for free software, and spreading the ethical ideas of the movement, as well as campaigning against both software patents and dangerous extension of copyright laws. Before that, Stallman developed a number of widely used software components of the GNU system, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU symbolic debugger (gdb), GNU Emacs, and various other programs for the GNU operating system.
Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, and is the main author of the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license, which implements copyleft.
Stallman gives speeches frequently about free software and related topics. Common speech titles include " The GNU Operating System and the Free Software movement" , " The Dangers of Software Patents" , and " Copyright and Community in the Age of the Computer Networks" . A fourth common topic consists of explaining the changes in version 3 of the GNU General Public License, which was released in June 2007. Another topic is " A Free Digital Society" , which treats several different threats to the freedom of computer users today.
In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free on-line encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles.
Free Software, Free Society is Stallman's book of essays. Free as in Freedom provides further biographical information.
He has received the following awards:
1986: Honorary life time membership in the Chalmers Computer Society
1990: MacArthur Foundation Fellowship
1990: The Association for Computing Machinery's Grace Murray Hopper Award " For pioneering work in the development of the extensible editor EMACS (Editing Macros)."
1996: Doctorate honoris causa from Sweden's Royal Institute of Technology
1998: Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer award
1999: Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award
2001: The Takeda Techno-Entrepreneurship Award for Social/Economic Well-Being
2001: Doctorate honoris causa from the University of Glasgow
2002: United States National Academy of Engineering membership
2003: Doctorate honoris causa from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel
2003: Honorary professorship from the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería del Perú
2004: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad Nacional de Salta, in Argentina
2004: Honorary professorship from the Universidad Tecnológica del Perú
2005: Fondazione Pistoletto prize
2007: Honorary professorship from the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, in Peru
2007: First Premio Internacional Extremadura al Conocimiento Libre
2007: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad de Los Angeles de Chimbote, in Peru
2007: Doctorate honoris causa from the University of Pavia
2008: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, in Peru
2009: Doctor of Science honoris causa from Lakehead University in Canada
2011: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, in Argentina
2012: Honorary professorship from the Universidad César Vallejo de Trujillo, in Peru
2012: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad Latinoamericana Cima de Tacna, in Peru
2012: Doctorate honoris causa from the Universidad José Faustino Sanchez Carrió, in Peu
2013: Inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame